Workplace organizational behaviour part II: Perception
In a previous post in this series, I discussed the definition of workplace organizational behaviour and how certain individual-level variables including biographical characteristics, personality, ability and learning affect productivity, absenteeism, turnover and job satisfaction. In this post, let’s examine how one’s perception influences productivity, absenteeism, turnover and job satisfaction.
What is perception? It has been defined as the process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions in order to give meaning to their environment. What one perceives can be substantially different from what another person perceives, and both can be very different than the actual objective reality. In fact, behaviour is based on one’s perception of what reality is, not reality itself.
Why is this important? Behaviour in the workplace is based on people’s perception of the workplace. There are many factors that influence how something is perceived. For instance, factors pertaining to the perceiver can involve the person’s attitudes, motives, interests, experience and expectations. Factors associated with the context can involve time, work setting and social setting. Finally, factors related to the actual target can involve novelty, motion, sounds, size, background and proximity.
But what does this have to do with employment? Well, there are various ways that a person can perceive a situation in the work environment that can lead to problems. For example, the following can occur among employees in the workplace on a daily basis:
- Fundamental attribution error — The tendency to underestimate the influence of external factors and overestimate the influence of internal factors when making judgments about the behaviour of others
- Self-serving bias — The tendency to attribute one’s own successes to internal factors and blame one’s own failures on external factors
- Selective perception — The tendency to selectively interpret what is seen based on one’s interests, background, experience and attitudes
- Projection — The tendency to attribute one’s own characteristics to other people
- Stereotyping — The tendency to judge someone on the basis of the perception of a group to which that person belongs
- Halo effect — The tendency to draw a general impression about an individual based on a single characteristic
As you can imagine, the way a person perceives a job applicant during an interview can affect an organization. For example, interviewers may like one aspect of the interviewee, and then pursuant to the halo effect, assume the interviewee is entirely a good fit with the company because of that one characteristic. Or interviewers may learn they have one thing in common with the interviewee and project that they are similar to the interviewee in every way, making a good fit for the organization.
Alternatively, an employee may not get a promotion because an employer has formed a negative impression about the employee simply because that person belongs to a particular religious group. This is stereotyping and is clearly contrary to human rights legislation, but given human nature’s tendency to gather things and people into groups and make general impressions, it may happen more often than one might think.
As well, an employee may be considered to be disloyal or not putting enough effort into a project. These characteristics are subjectively judged based on an employer’s perceptions. For example, one supervisor may consider an employee to be loyal, while another supervisor may consider that same employee to be too conforming and insincere.
In terms of perceptions, research has shown that what employees perceive from their work situation influences their productivity most. Therefore, to influence productivity, it is necessary for employers to assess how workers perceive their jobs.
Likewise, absenteeism, turnover and job satisfaction have more to do with an employee’s perception of the job. Those individuals who perceive their jobs as negative are likely to have increased absenteeism, more frequent turnover and less job satisfaction. The only way to influence these variables is to understand how an employee subjectively perceives the workplace.
Consequently, perception influences decision-making within an organization. Take the example of the interview. Within the first few minutes of the interview, the interviewer has learned some information about the interviewee and has formed an impression based on various perceptions. The interviewer then decides whether the candidate is a good fit with the company. The remaining time in the interview is typically spent asking select information that supports the initial decision.
Though we are all human and have a background and a particular perspective on which we rely when perceiving things in the work setting, it is important to be aware of the various factors that influence our perceptions, especially when making important decisions that affect the organization. Sometimes it is a good idea to have a few decision makers provide an opinion when making big decisions to ensure that various perceptions are considered before taking the plunge.
The next topic of discussion in this series: values, attitudes and job satisfaction!
First Reference Human Resources and Compliance Editor