On June 20, 1868, a proclamation signed by the Governor General Lord Monck called upon all Her Majesty’s loving subjects throughout Canada to join in the celebration of the anniversary of the formation of the union of the British North America provinces in a federation under the name of Canada on July 1.
Tomorrow is July 1, 2014. It is a day that marks Canada’s “birthday”. It is also the date of the coming into force of Canada’s Anti-Spam Legislation (CASL). While most Canadians will be out celebrating Canada Day with their families and friends, they should also be in compliance with CASL. But are they?
Constructive or adverse discrimination in employment occurs when rules or standards are established that do not discriminate at first glance, but have an adverse effect on persons whose rights are protected under human rights legislation. In such a case, the burden shifts to the employer to establish that such rules or standards are essential to the job, also known as bona fide occupational requirements (BFOR’s. British Columbia (Public Service Employee Relations Commission) v. BCGSEU is the leading case which addresses this issue. This seminal human rights case from the Supreme Court of Canada established a three-part test which has become the standard to evaluate constructive discrimination.