By now, regular readers should understand that summary dismissal in Canada is complex, and assessing whether or not just cause for dismissal exists requires much more than consideration of the alleged misconduct in isolation.
The seminal judgment on the issue of just cause remains the decision of the Supreme Court of Canada in McKinley v. B.C. Tel., in which the Court wrote as follows:
Our courts have recognized the fundamental importance of employment to an individual and have made it clear that while summary dismissal is appropriate is appropriate in some circumstances, the threshold is high for what has been dubbed “the capital punishment of employment law”.
It is clear that the principle of proportionality must be respected, but that it is not accurate to suggest that “the punishment must fit the crime”, since the contextual approach requires consideration not only of the “crime”, but of all relevant circumstances. That includes factors such as
- The employee’s length of service;
- The employee’s prior disciplinary history;
- The degree of trust required;
- The employee’s response when confronted;
- Any mitigating circumstances; and
- Any other relevant factors.
Ultimately, the Court must assess whether the employment relationship has been damaged beyond repair. In many cases, seemingly egregious misconduct has been found not to be just cause for dismissal within the context of all relevant factors. Often, employers and the general public are shocked by our Courts’ willingness to offer people a second, third and even fourth chance. They wonder what it takes to fire someone in this country.
Every now and then, a decision is released that reassures employers that summary dismissal will be upheld in the right circumstances. The recent decision of well-respected Arbitrator Peter Chauvin in Firestone Textiles Company v United Food and Commercial Workers Canada, Local 175, is one such case. In that case, the employee was in his late 50s and had 36 years of service. However, a single incident led to the end of his employment. Somewhat inexplicably, he became annoyed with a co-worker banging the lid of his lunch container, took out the two utility knives he had with him for work, and asked “Would you like the curved blade or the straight blade?”
He then attacked his colleague by swinging one of the knives, and when the colleague tried to defend himself, he received a shallow cut. Shortly after, the grievor said “You are lucky that I didn’t stab you in the heart.”
The employee was fired, and a grievance was filed. The union submitted that there were mitigating circumstances which should have led to a conclusion that dismissal was too harsh. Arbitrator Chauvin thoroughly considered the law and facts; his reasoning is insightful:
As I often say, “just cause is not a lost cause”. While sometimes, our courts and arbitrators seem to find ways to “save” employees that behave egregiously, cases like this provide some assurance that employers can fire employees where it is deserved.
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