On August 15, 2019, US Department of Homeland Security announced that the United States and Canada had implemented its Agreement on Land, Rail, Marine, and Air Transport Preclearance between the Government of the United States of America and the Government of Canada (Preclearance Agreement). The Preclearance Agreement was signed by the US Secretary of Homeland Security and Canadian Minister of Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness on March 16, 2015, as part of the Beyond the Border Action Plan.
In order to minimize the risk of employees being barred from the United States, Canadian employers should educate their workforce on the above issues prior to (or soon after) October 17, 2018.
Travellers may feel that searches of their electronic devices at border crossings are an unreasonable violation of their privacy rights. However, they need to be aware that refusing to provide their password can have serious consequences.