Job loss almost always comes as a shock. Many people define themselves by their job — when this disappears, it takes part of their identity. Luckily, job loss does not usually mean an immediate loss of income, since most dismissals involve some financial payment (usually referred to as “severance”).
For years, I have said that there are two types of bonuses: discretionary or objectively calculated. Many employers use mixed wording which leads to ambiguity, and we know that any ambiguity in a contract will be interpreted contrary to the interests of the drafting party.
Many employers assume that they can demote an employee as a disciplinary measure and are shocked to learn that doing so might constitute a constructive dismissal. In fact, it will be a constructive dismissal in most cases.